Which fats are good for you and your microbiota?

As a supplement to the recent post on fat and microbiota, I am posting a summary of what is known about various fats’ effects on the composition of gut microbiota and on intestinal barrier function.

Short Chain Fatty Acids Protect Against Obesity

From Kimura et al. 2014 Gut microbiota protect against obesity via short chain fatty acid receptors

High fat diet causes dysbiosis and impaired intestinal barrier function

Cani et al 2007 Metabolic Endotoxemia Initiates Obesity and Insulin Resistance

Pederson 2013 high-fat diet increases Streptococcaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli

Jakobsdottir 2014 High fat diet reduces SCFA reversible with fiber

Ma 2014 High-fat maternal diet during pregnancy persistently alters the offspring microbiome in a primate model – high fat diet reduces commensal Campylobacter

Huang 2013 Composition of Dietary Fat Source Shapes Gut Microbiota Architecture and Alters Host Inflammatory Mediators in Mouse Adipose Tissue- n-6 PUFA, LARD and Milk Fat change microbiota and induce insulin resistance.

Zhang 2010 Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet relevant to development of metabolic syndromes in mice. Decreased Bifidobacteria.

de la Serre 2010 Propensity to high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats is associated with changes in the gut microbiota and gut inflammation.

Deopurkar 2010 Differential Effects of Cream, Glucose, and Orange Juice on Inflammation, Endotoxin. Saturated fat causes endotoxemia

Kim 2012 High Fat Diet-Induced Gut Microbiota Exacerbates Inflammation and Obesity in Mice via the TLR4 Signaling Pathway – increased Enterobacteriaceae and endotoxemia

Carvalho 2012 High fat diet dysbiosis and impairment of insulin sensitivity prevented with antibiotics

Le Roy Intestinal microbiota determines development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Microbiota are the causal feature controlling the inflammatory response to high fat diet.

Ridaura 2013 Gut Microbiota from Twins Discordant for Obesity Modulate Metabolism in Mice – high saturated fat diet prevented phenotypic rescue of obese mice during co-housing of lean and obese mice.

Brown 2012 Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease. Excellent review

Saturated fats cause dysbiosis

Devkota et al. FASEB

Devkota et al. 2012 Dietary fat-induced taurocholic acid production promotes pathobiont and colitis in IL-10−/− mice. saturated fat increased δ-Proteobacteria Bilophila wadsworthia.

Shen et al. Influence of dietary fat on intestinal microbes, inflammation, barrier function and metabolic outcomes

Kim 2012 High Fat Diet-Induced Gut Microbiota Exacerbates Inflammation and Obesity in Mice via the TLR4 Signaling Pathway

Mani 2013 Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia – saturated FA increased endotoxemia

Oleic acid (monounsaturated fat) prevents HFD dysbiosis and increases Bifidobacteria

Omega-3 fatty acids prevent dysbiosis and promote beneficial microbes

Myles et al. Effects of Parental Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake on Offspring Microbiome and Immunity

Mujico 2012 changes in gut microbiota due to supplemented fatty acids in diet-induced obese mice

Muller 2014 FASEB

Ghosh 2013 Fish Oil Attenuates Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid- Induced Dysbiosis and Infectious Colitis but Impairs LPS Dephosphorylation Activity Causing Sepsis

Ghosh 2013 Diets rich in n-6 PUFA induce intestinal microbial dysbiosis in aged mice.

Mani 2013 Dietary oil composition differentially modulates intestinal endotoxin transport and postprandial endotoxemia – omega-3 FA decreased endotoxemia

Patterson 2013 Impact of dietary fatty acids on metabolic activity and host intestinal microbiota composition in C57BL/6J mice – omega-3 FA increased Bifidobacteria.

Omega-6 fatty acids cause dysbiosis

Ghosh 2013 Fish Oil Attenuates Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid- Induced Dysbiosis and Infectious Colitis but Impairs LPS Dephosphorylation Activity Causing Sepsis

Ghosh 2013 Diets rich in n-6 PUFA induce intestinal microbial dysbiosis in aged mice.

Zeng 2013 Fatty Liver Accompanies an Increase in Lactobacillus Species in the Hind Gut of C57BL/6 Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet – n-6 fat caused expansion of bile salt resistant bacteria associated with fatty liver.

Hildebrandt 2009 High-fat diet determines the composition of the murine gut microbiome independently of obesity. n-6 safflower oil increased Proteobacteria

Prebiotics increase protect against dysbiosis and increase Bifidobacteria and improve metabolism

Everard ISME J. 2014 Microbiome of prebiotic-treated mice reveals novel targets involved in host response during obesity

Cani 2007 Selective increases of bifidobacteria in gut microflora improve high-fat-diet-induced diabetes

Short chain fatty acids

Jakobsdottir 2014 High fat diet reduces SCFA reversible with fiber

Bottom line:  Avoid excess saturated fats (and n-6 PUFA). For metabolic health, consume omega-3 fatty acids, olive oil, and prebiotics that promote short chain fatty acids.

One thought on “Which fats are good for you and your microbiota?

  1. Pingback: High fat diet good or bad? | Evolutionary Medicine

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